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Why Prep?

English Morphemes

by Leon ©2008-present

And, yes.  I do update this page from time to time.
So, keep coming back for more!


By studying morphemes, you can learn the etymology of the English language through Latin roots and Greek roots.  If you are sixth grade or above, this is the BEST way to improve your English vocabulary.

A morpheme is the smallest unit of a word that has meaning.
My main source for this page is Online Etymology Dictionary.
But, I also used Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary.
And, once I used Urban Dictionary.


Table of Contents

Section 1:
General Morphemes
(for general morphemes, just scroll down)

Section 2:
Numerical Morphemes

Section 3:
 Body Parts Morphemes

(This helps in the study of human anatomy and...
in the study of the medical/biological sciences)

  Section 4:
Halloween Morphemes

Section 5:

Christmas Morphemes.


Morpheme of the Month:

cede vs. sede


- cede (> Latin cedere; meaning "yield").
(1)  cede (yield)
I cede defeat.
(2)  intercede (yield between...)
I interceded in the discussion.
(3)  precede (yield before...)
The letter "i" precedes "e", except after "c" or followed by "g".  (with some exceptions).
- sede (> Proto Indo-European sed; meaning "sit")
(1)  supersede (to "sit" above...)
Love supersedes all else.
(2)  assess (from Latin assessus literally "sitting by")
Originally the word was used in tax-gathering to sit and assess one's taxes.
(3)  sedentary (sitting-like)
To live a sedentary lifestyle is unhealthy.



above/over supra-, super- hyper-


superior (above in status/level)
suprasegmental (beyond the actual sounds of the letters; features of voice quality when speaking)

hyperactive (over active)
hyperthermia (over heating)
hypersensitive (over feeling)

after post- -


postpone (after do)
post facto (after the fact)
post script (after writing) P.S.
post test (test after learning)

again re- -


repair (again put together)
respect (again see nicely)
review (again look at) [USA, Canada]
revise (again look at) [UK,Australia,Singapore]

against (mentally) anti- -


anti-government (against government)
(against the idea of destruction)

against (physically) contra-, counter -


contra positive (negative)
counter strike (strike back against)

all total- omni- ;  pan-


total (all; whole amount)

[see also, "whole"]

omnipotent (all-powerful)
omnipresent (all-present)
omnivore (all-eater; one who eats meat and vegitables)
panacea (all-curing)
panorama (all-seeing)

? para-



parapsychology (beside psychology)
paragraph (beside the graph)
      -graph (means "writing" or "picture")

(the word "animal" is not pure English;  the pure English word for animal was "deer").
anima (l) zoo-


animal (any creature)
animation (making an object move; as in animated movies)
animatronics (making robots move)

zoo = shortened form of "zoological garden" (animal garden)

zoology (animal study)
zoologist (animal study person)

around para- perio-


paradise (around wall)
     Note:  the original paradise had a wall around it

periodontal (around the teeth; gums)

back (in time) re-; retro- -


repossess (take back)
active (make take effect before)
retrospect (look back)
retrograde (back down)

bad mal- dys-


malady (bad illness; disease)
malice (bad feelings)
malevolent (bad intentions)
malediction (bad talking)

dysfunction (bad workings)
dyslexia (bad reading)
dyspepsia (bad digestion)

bear/carry -fer -fero


conifer (cone carrying)
infer (carry inside your mind)
defer (carry down, and wait)
Lucifer (light bearer; light carrier)
prefer (want more than other)
refer (again carry to another person)

before pre- ante-


prepare (before get ready)
prefix (fixed/attached before)
preposition (before the noun)

antemeridian (before the middle)
antediluvian (before The Flood)
ante-mortal (before birth into mortality)

below/under sub-, infra-, infer- hypo-


submarine (under the sea)
subterranean (under the earth)
subheading (under the heading)
red (below red)
inferior (below others)

hypothermia (low heat disease)
hypodermic (under the skin)
hypoglycemia (low sugar disease)

between inter- -


interact (act between 2 or more people)
intercommunication (talking between...)
interface ("talking" between machines)
intercom (machine for communication)
interpret (talk between 2 languages)
international (between nations)

big grand- mega-


grand (big #; a lot; 1 thousand)
grandiose (big)
grandiloquence (big talking)

megaphone (big phone)
megabyte (big (million) bytes)

body corp- soma-, -some


corpse (dead body)
corpus (body (bunch) of words)
corporation (body (bunch) of workers)
corporal (of the body)

chromosome (rainbow body)
lysosome (loosening body)
psychosomatic (mind over body)

book libr- biblio-


library (book room)
librarian (person of book room)

Bible (book)
bibliophile (book lover)

both ambi- amphi-


ambidextrous (using BOTH hands)
ambiguity (having 2 meanings)
ambivalence (2 outer shells)

amphibian (living BOTH on land & water)

bottom found- -


found(v.) (to start building up from the bottom)
foundation (the bottom of something)

brother frater- adelfos-


fraternal (brotherly, (of siblings))
fraternity (brotherhood)
fraternize (to talk with and get new "brothers")

child fili- ped-


filial (adj) (of son or daughter)
filial piety (respect of son or daughter)

pedagogue (teacher of children)
pedagogy (science of teaching children)
pediatrics (science of children's medicine)
pediatrician (children's medical doctor) 

circle -cycl- cycl- / dia-


cycle (circle of life)
bicycle (two circles (wheels))
tricycle (three circles (wheels))
unicycle (one circle (wheel))

cyclops (circle eyed monster (with 1 eye))
dial (circle)
zodiac (animal circle, (in the stars))
diaspora (to spread out in a circle)

cold, freezing -frig- cryo-


frigid (very cold)
refrigerator (a machine that makes things cold)

cryonics (freezing the body, for the future)
cryogenics (creating freezing temperatures)

color (Latin)
(pure English)
-color- chrom-


color (hue)
colorful (having many hues)

chrome (a mirror-like metal that reflects all hues; made from chromium and nickel)
chromatic (having many hues)
chromium (a mirror-like metallic element)
chromosome (chomo + soma >>>a colorful body)

come -ven(e)- -


convene (come together)
convention (coming together)
intervene (come between)
invention (a new thing that comes into the mind)

crazy / craziness insan(e) -mania-


insane (not normal in the head)
insanity (condition of being not normal in the head)

mania (craziness)
maniac (crazy person)
pyromania (craziness about fire)
pyromaniac (person who is crazy about fire)

create (make) -fact- -gen-


factory (place to create things)
manufacture (make by hand)

generate (create/make)
generation (a period of creation, about 20-70 years)
carcinogen (thing that creates cancer)
mutagen (thing that creates mutations)
teratogen (thing that creates birth defects)

day -dia- -


diary (daily journal)
dial (a circle (as the sun circles the earth))

(old meaning = animal)
-anima- -zo-


animal (moving creature)
animate (to make something move, like a cartoon)
animation (moving cartoons)
inanimate (adj) (not moving)

zoo (place for animals)
zoology (study of animals)
zodiac (animal circle)
protozoa (first animal)

die/death -mort- necro-


mortal (adj.)  (deathly; can die)
mortal (n.) (a being that will die)
immortal (n.) (a being that will not die)
mortality (condition of being able to die)
mortician (a death doctor)
morbid (deathly; looks like death)
post mortem (after-death examination)
mortify (to make someone appear dead; to scare someone half to death)

necrology (study of death)
necrophilia (love of the dead)
necrophiliac (person who loves the dead)
necrosis (death of human tissue)
necropsy (after-death examination of animal)
necromancy (talking to dead people)
necromancer (person who talks to the dead)
necropolis (place of the dead)

drink bib- -


bib (a towel for a baby to drink)
imbibe (to drink (especially alcohol))
bibber (person who drinks (especially alcohol))

down de- cata-, cato-


deep (far down)
destroy (tear down)
destruction (tearing down)
deconstruct (take construction down)
deposit (put down)
detain (hold down)

catabolism (down throw) [catabolism is the part of metabolism which involves the breaking down of things in the body; its opposite is anabolism, which is the building up of things in the body].
catatonia (down tone disease) [catatonia is a disease of little or no movement in the skeletal muscles].

earth, land -terra- -geo-


terra firma (firm land)
terra cotta (cooked earth)
territory (someone's land)
extra-terrestrial (E.T.) (outside earth)
terrarium (land in a tank)

geocartography (Earth map-making)
graphy (Earth picture)
geology (Earth study)
geothermal (Earth heat)

eat come- -phago-


comestible (something to eat)

macrophage (large eater)
cyte {"eating cell" (a white blood cell)}

eye, sight -ocula -ops, opt-

binoculars (two eyes) [a visual enhancing device that requires two eyes as it has two lenses].

Cylops (circle-shaped eye)
optical (of eyes)
optics (eye science)
optometrist (eye measurer)
ophthalmologist (eye chamber doctor)

far tele- tele-


teleport (far away door)
telescope (far away see)

telekinesis (far touch)
telepathy (far feeling)
telephone (far sound)

father pater- patri-


paternal (fatherly)
paternity (fatherhood)

patriarch (father leader)
patriot (lover of the fatherland)
expatriate (outside the fatherland person)

fear terror- -phob-


terror (fear)
terrorize (fear-make)
terrorism (fear-movement)

phobia (fear-disease)
phobic (fearful)
phobe (fearing person)
agoraphobia (public place fear)
arachnophobia (spider fear)

feel or feeling (mental) -sent- -pathos-


sentiment (feeling; emotion)
sentimental (having feeling; having emotion)

apathy (no feeling)
empathy {in feeling (from someone else)}
sympathy (same feeling)
telepathy (far feeling)

feel or feeling (physical) -sens- -


sense (physical feeling; perception)
sensitive (having great feeling)

feet -ped- -pod-


pedal (of feet)
pedestrian (person on foot)
pedastool (foot stool)
biped (2 feet)
quadriped (4 feet)
pedantic (step by step)

pod (foot)
podiatrist (foot doctor)
tripod (3 feet)
tetrapod (4 feet)

finger digit- -phalang-


digit (finger; one place value in a number)
digital (of binary number system)

phalange (finger;  or a flat, circular metallic part)
phalanx (group of people or troops, which is part of a large group, as a finger is part of a hand)

fire -ferno pyro-


inferno (fiery underworld)

pyromania (fire-crazy-disease)
pyromaniac (person who is crazy about fire)

first -prim(e)- -proto-


prime (first)
primal (first)
primate (first upright walking mammals)

protocol (first rules)
prototype (first of a kind)
protozoa (first animal)

flesh -carn- -


carnal (of the flesh)
incarnate (in the flesh)
carnivore (flesh eater)
carnival (flesh party)

forward pro- -


project (forward throw (verb))
protest (forward witness (verb))
provoke (forward voice (verb))

good -bene- eu-


benevolent (good hearted)
benediction (good speech; prayer)
benefit (good deed)
benefactor (good doer)
beneficiary (good doee; good receiver)

euthanasia (good death)
Eugene (good genes)
eugenics (good genes science)
eulogy (good word(s))
europe (good ?)
eustress (good stress)

group -greg- organ-


aggregate (grouped (adj.); group (verb))
congregation (together group)
gregarious (grouping (adj.))

organ (group of cells with similar function; or group of musical pipes)
organism (group of cells which is a living being)
organize (make a group)
organization (group of people)

hand man- chiro-


manual (of the hand)
mano-a-mano (hand to hand)
manufacture (make by hand)
manipulate (handle (verb))

chiropractor (hand-using joint-fixing doctor)
chiromancy (palmistry)

head -cap- -phren-


cap (head; hat)
capital (head city)
capitol (head building)
decapitate (downed head make)
captain (head person)

phrenology (study of the shape of the head, and how it correlates with one's mind)

hear/hearing -audi- -audi-


audience (hearers; listeners)
audio (hearing (adj.))
audition (hearing (noun))
auditory (of hearing)

heart -cor-, coron- -cardi-


core (heart; center)
coronary (heart attack)

cardiac (of the heart)
cardiology (study of the heart)
myocarditis (muscle of heart inflammation)

herb plant botanic



botanic (of herbs)
botanicals (herbals)
botany (study of herbs)
botanist (person who studies herbs)

hold -tain -


contain (hold)
detain (hold down)
obtain (get and hold)
pertain (hold meaning to...)

home -domum- dome-



dome (semi-spherical home)
domecile (home)
domestic (of the home)

hot / heat calor- -therm-


calorie (measurement of heat)

thermometer (heat measurer)
thermodynamics (heat actions)
endothermic (inside-heat)
exothermic (outside-heat)
thermos (thing that keeps the heat of your liquid from dissipating)
thermostat (thing that measures heat)

hope -(e)sper-, -(e)spair -


despair (downed hope)
desperate (having downed hope)
desperado (>Spanish:  one with downed hope)


in/inside in-, intra- -endo-


innate (in the womb)
intramural (in the school)
intrapersonal (inside the person)

endothermic (inside heat)
endoskeleton (inside skeleton)
endoderm (inside skin)

(know a concrete thing)
-cogni- -


cognize (to know)
recognize (again know)
cognition (knowledge)
precognition (fore knowledge)
cognizant (knowing (adj.))
cognizance (knowing (noun))

(know an abstract thing)
-science- -gnosis-


science (knowledge)
conscience (together knowledge
prescience (fore knowledge)
omniscience (all knowledge)

prognosis (forward knowledge)
prognosticator (forward knowledge person)
Gnostic (knowledgeable one)
gnosticism (knowledgeable movement)

leader -?- -arch-



patriarch (father leader)
matriarch (mother learder)
oligarchy (few leaders)
monarch (one leader)
anarchy (no leader)

(of the alphabet)
-litera- -gram-


literature (writing)
literate (able to write)
illiterate (unable to write)
monogram (one letter) [two or more letters intertwined to form one design]

tetragram (four letters)
tetragrammaton (the 4 letters of God's name)
grammar (rules of writing)

live, life -viv- -bio-


survive (up-live)
vivacious (lively)
vivify (make alive)
vivid (like life)
vivacity (liveliness)

biology (life, study of)
biography (life, writing of)
biosphere (life's ball)
biotic (living)
biochemistry (life's chemistry

(of a certain level or kind)
-class- -


class (group of same level or same kind)
classify (make groups of same kinds)
classification (noun of classify)
declassify (take down the groups)

land/earth terra- geo-


extra-terrestrial (outside earth)
terra-cotta (cooked earth)
       - bricks, orange pottery, orange-clay shingles, etc.
terrarium (land tank)
terra firma (firm land)

geology (land study)
geologist (land-study person)
geothermal (land heat)

light -luc- -photo-


lucid (clear)
translucent (lets light travel through)
elucidate (out-light-make)
Lucifer (light bearer)

photograph (light writing; light picture)
photosynthesis (light-together-putting)
phototropism (light-growing; growing toward the light)

love -amor- -phil-


amorous (loving)
enamored (in love)

Philip (lover of horses)
philanthropy (love of humans)
philosophy (love of wisdom)
hemophilia (blood-love disease)
bibliophile (book lover)
hydrophilic (water-loving)
chlorophyll (green lover)

make -fy -ise[UK] -ize[US]


beautify (make beautiful)
testify (make a witness)
classify (make a group)

apologize (make excuses)
organize (make a group)
globalize (make a single global network)

man homo- andro-


homo sapiens (man who knows himself)
homicide (man-killing)
hominoid (man-like)

android (man-like robot)
androgen (man-maker)
androgenic (man-making)

-sign- -


sign (make one's mark or signature)
design (down-mark; put marks down on paper)
resign (take back one's mark or signature)
re-sign (again make one's mark)
signature (one's personal mark)

mind -ment- -psych-


mental (of the mind)
dementia (down-mind disease)

psyche (mind)
psychotic (having a deviant mind)
psychology (mind study; study of the mind)
psychiatry (doctor of the mind (and body))

moon -luna- -


lunar (of the moon)
lunatic (person affected negatively by the moon)

mother mater- matri-


maternal (of mother)
maternity (motherhood)

matriarch (mother leader)
matrix (mother field or mother substance)

new -nov- neo-


noval (new)
novel (new book)
novice (new person)
nova (new material (from a star))
Nova Scotia (New Scotland)

neonatal (of the newborn)
neonate (newborn)
neophyte (new convert)
neotype (new type of organism)

old (not new) anci-, ance- archai-, archeo-


ancient (very old)
ancestors (the old ones (now dead))

archaic (very old)
archeology (old-study; study of old objects)

out or outside e-, ex-, extra- ex-, exo-


elicit (out draw;  draw out)
elect (out pick; choose out of)
expel (out kick; kick out)
explain (out know; give out knowledge)
expose (out put; put out)
expound (out give; give out information)
extra (outside the norm)
extra-terrestrial (outside the earth)
extra-marital (outside of marriage)
extra-Biblical (outside the Bible)

exoskeleton (outside skeleton)
expatriate (outside the fatherland)

peace pac, paci- -


pacify (peace make; make peaceful)
pacifist (peace-maker; peace-making person)
pacifier (peace-making thing)
Pacific Ocean (Peaceful Ocean)

(as in the common people)
- demo(s)



democracy (people rule)
demographics (people + written information)
person -human- -anthrop-

humane (of humans; human-like)
inhuman (not of humans; unlike humans)
humanity (all humans, collectively)

anthropology (study of humans)
anthropomorph (human shaped being)
philanthropy (love of humans)

(This is not original English;  The original English word is herb.)
plant botanic



botanic (of plants)
botanicals (plants for herbal use)
botany (study of herbs)
botanist (person who studies herbs)



petro-, peter


petrify (rock-make; make into a rock)
petrified wood (wood that has been made into a rock)

petrol (rock oil)
petroleum (rock oil)
petrology (rock-study; study of rocks)
petroglyph (rock picture)
Peter (The Rock)

same homo-, homeo- syn-, sym-


homonym (same name)
homophone (same sound)
homosexual (same sex)
homeostasis (same-stay; stay the same)

synchronize = make same time
onym (same name)
sympathy (same feeling)
sympathetic (having the same feeling)

say -dict- -


predict (before-say; say before)
dictate (say (and the hearer writes))
dictator (one-person government; what he/she says goes)
dictionary (a book that teachers how to say words)
diction (speech)

see/seeing -vis- -


vision (sight; ability to see)
visual (seen; seen thing)
visor (something that blocks or limits seeing)
audio-visual (hearing & seeing)

self - auto-



automobile (self-moving machine)
automatic (self-moving)
automate (make self-moving)
autograph (self's writing; signature)
autocracy (self government; (for politics))
autocrat (self ruler)
autonomy (self governing; (for a person))

shape -figur- -morph-


figure (shape (of a person); number)
disfigure (make a person's shape bad)

morphology (shape-study; study of shapes (symbols) of the smallest unit of letters that have meaning)
morpheme (shape of the smallest unit of a word that has meaning)
metamorphosis (changing-shape process)
anthropomorph (human shape)

sister soro- adelfi-


sorority (sisterhood)

sleep -dorm- narco-


dormitory (sleeping room)
dormant (sleeping)

narcotics (sleeping drugs)
narcolepsy (sleeping disease)

small pica-, minute- micro-


picayune (adj.; very, very small)
minute (adj.; very small)

microscope (small thing seeing device)
microphone (small sound > to big sound)
microbiology (study of very small living things)
microbe (very small living thing)

sound -son- -phono-


sonar (sound)
sonic (of sound)

phonology (sound study; study of sound)
phonics (sound study; study of sounds of speech)
phoneme (the smallest unit of sound that has meaning)
telephone (far sound)
microphone (small sound > to big sound)

speak -locu-, -loqu- -


locutor (speaker)
interlocutor (person you are speaking with)
loquacious (speaking a lot)
eloquent (speaking well)
circumlocution (speaking around the issue)
eloquence (beautiful speech)
grandiloquence (overly beautiful speech)
locution (speech)

star -stell- aster-, astro-


stellar (of the stars; like a star)
constellation (group of stars) 

asteroid (small star; rock in space)
asterix (small written star)
astrology (study of the stars)
astronomy (study of the stars)
astro-physics (study of the movement of the stars)

sun -sol- -heli-


solar (of the sun)
solarium (sun room; room that lets in a lot of sunlight)

helium (of the sun; the element of the sun)
helio-centric (sun-centered)

taste gust -


gusto (taste)
disgusting (bad-tasting)

teach doct- didact-


doctor (teacher; scholar)

didactic (having a teacher's character)

tell -count- -


recount (again-tell;  tell what happened)
account (one's person's side of the story)

time -tempo- -chron-


tempo (time; speed of music)
temporary (for a short time)
contemporary (at the present time)
extemporaneous (on the spot; no time to prepare)

anachronism (out of proper time)
chronology (study of time)
chronometer (time-measuring machine; clock; timer)
chronicle (journal with dates (time))
Chronos (father time)

together con-, com- -syn


congregate (together group make)
connect (together put)
contact (together touch)
convene (together come)

photosynthesis (light together put)
synchronize (together time make)
synthesis (together put)
synthetic (together put

tongue langua / lingua glossa/glosso/glot


language = a spoken tongue
lingua franca = a common language
unilingual = having one language
bilingual = having two languages
trilingual = having three languages
quadrilingual = having four languages
multilingual = having many languages

glossary (book of tongues) = lexicon
glossolalia = speaking in tongues
glottis = opening of the mouth
monoglot = having one language
diglot = having two languages
triglot = having three languages
polyglot = having many languages

touch -tact- -kine-


contact (together touch)
intact (in touch; touching)
tactile (of touching)
tactition (act of touching)

kinesthetic (of touch)
telekinesis (far away touching)

true, truth -vera- -


veracity (truth)
veracious (truthful)
verily (truthfully)

under / below sub- hypo-
Examples subdermal (under skin)
submarine (under sea)
hypothermia (low heat disease)
hypoglycemia (low sugar disease)
up sur- -


surprise (up emotion)
surrender (up give;  give up)
resurrection (again up straight)

voice -voc- -


vocal (of voice)
invoke (use your voice)
invocation (using your voice for prayer)
vocation (one's calling)
vocabulary (words)

war mar-, mart- -


Mars (god of war)
martial (war-like)
martial art (art of war)
martial law (law of wartime)

water aqua- hydra/hydro-


aquatic (of the water)
aquarium (water tank; with fish in it)
aquamarine (water-sea; color of sea water)

hydrogen (water-maker; main atom in water)
hydro-electric (electricity from water)
hydraulics (water pressure for technology)
Hydra (water serpent (with many heads))

weep -lament- -


lament (weep)
lamentations (weepings; regrets)
lamentable (able to be wept over; regretable)

weigh ponder -


ponder (v) to "weigh" in one's mind
ponderous (adj) weighty; heavy

whole / entire tot- -ome


total (whole amount; entire amount)
totalitarian (one with whole control)
totalitarianism (a philosophy that agrees with one person having whole control)

biome (bio + ome >>>life's whole existence; the entirety of living things in a given area)
genome (the genetic code in its entirety) 

wind vent- -


vent (window)
ventilate (open a window)

woman -donna- -gyn-


Madonna (mother woman)

gynecology (women's body study)
OB-GYN (woman's doctor)
androgyn (hermaphrodite)
androgyny (condition of being a hermaphrodite)

word -verb- -lexis-


verb (word that portrays action)
verbose (using many words)
verbal (having words; using words)

lexis (words)
lexicon (book that gives meaning of words)
lexicology (study of words)

word / words (group of words) -verb -logos-


verb (action word)
verbal (using words)
verbose (wordy)

log (book of words)
prologue (foreword)
epilogue (after word)
eulogy (good words)
monologue (one person's words)
dialogue (two people's words)
logic (word of reason)

write, writing -sribe-, -script- -graph-


scribe (writer)
scribble (write non-sensical stuff)
script (writing)
post script (after writing)
transcribe (write from a speech)
transcript (written report of a speech)

autograph (self writing)
graph (picture writing)
photograph (light writing)
grapheme (writing that has meaning)
graphic (of picture writing)
biography (life writing)





English meaning
Latin morpheme
Greek morpheme
one uni- mono-


universe (one is all)
unicycle (one circle; one wheel)
university (one place, many colleges)
unique (one of a kind)

monogram (one letter)
monologue (one person's words)
mononucleosis (one nucleus disease)
monopoly (one (company) has many)

two bi- di-, dy-, dia-


bicycle (two circles; two wheels)
biweekly (every 2 weeks)
bimonthly (every 2 months)
biannually (every 2 years)

dyad (two; pair; couple)
digress (2 grow; grow into 2 speeches)
divide (2 cut;  cut into 2 parts)
dialogue (2 people talking)

three tri- tri-


tricycle (3 circles; 3 wheels)
triangle (3 angles)
triple (3 identical things)
triplets (3 identical people)

triad (three; group of three)

four quad- tetra-


quad (4)
quadrilateral (4 sided shape)
quadruple (4 identical things)
quadruplets (4 identical people)

tetragram (4 letters)
tetrapod (4 feet)
tetragrammaton (The 4-letter name of God)

five quint- pent-


quintuplets (5 identical people)
quintessential (top 5)
quintile (1 of 5 parts)
biquintile (2 of 5 parts)

pentagon (5-sided shape)
Pentateuch (first 5 books of the Bible)
Pentecost (50th day)
pentagram (pentagon with a 5-pointed star)

six sex- hex-


sextuplets (6 identical people)

hexagon (6-sided shape)

seven sept- hept-


September (7th month; It used to be the 7th month, but now it is the 9th month)

heptagon (7-sided shape)

eight oct- -oct-


October (8th month; It used to be the 8th month, but now it is the 10th month)
octopus (8-legged creature)

octagon (8-sided shape)

nine nov- -non-


November (9th month; It used to be the 9th month, but now it is the 11th month)

nonagon (9-sided shape)

ten dec- dek-


December (10th month; It used to be the 10th month, but now it is the 12th month)
decade (10 years)

dekaliter (10 liters)
dekagram (10 grams)

hundred cent- -


cent (1/100th of a dollar)
century (100 years)

thousand mil- kilo-


millennium (1000 years)

kilometers (1000 meters)
grams (1000 grams)
kilobytes (1000 bytes)

million - mega-



megabytes (1 000 000 bytes)

billion - giga-



gigabytes (1 000 000 000 bytes)

trillion - tera-



terabytes (1 000 000 000 000 bytes)

many multi- poly-


multiple (many)
multiply (make many)

polygon (many-sided shape)
polygamy (many wives)




Body Parts Morphemes
(Anatomy / Physiology)

English meaning
Latin morpheme
Greek morpheme
arm arm- bratso


arm branch (arm of a tree)
belly abdomen -


"abs" (short for abdominal muscles)
blood sangui(s) hema-


sanguine (means hopeful and cheery) but that is because it was thought that a person was in such a good mood because of the abundance of blood in the body; possibly also showing in the redness of the cheeks.

hematoma (blood loss)

subdermal hematoma (under skin bleeding;  AKA:  a bruise)

birth nat- genesis


natal (of birth)
native (born there)
nativity (birth)
nature (thing that gives birth to all organic life in the universe)
Genesis  (birth of creation)
generate (to create)
bone ossis osteo-


? osteoporosis (bone pore disease)
brain cerebrum -ceph- or -cepha-


cerebrum (the whole brain)
cerebellum (the "little brain")
encephalitis {en (in) + cepha (brain) + itis (inflamation)
chest (inside) thorax
(outside) pect(o)


thoracic vertebra
pectoralis muscle (pecs)

stethoscope (chest checker)

death mort- thanatos-

mortal (able to die)
immortal (not able to die)
mortician (death doctor)
morbid (deathly)
euthanasia (good death)

[I'm not saying it's a good death; I'm saying that's what it means.]

eu = good [in Greek].

ear aur- oto-

aural (of the ear) otolaryngologist (ear-throat doctor)
eye occul- -op-

monocle (one-eyed glass)
occular hematoma (eye bleed) 
clycops (circle eye)
optical (of the eye)
optical illusion (tricking the eye)
optometrist (eye measurer)
ophthalmologist (eye doctor)
female (woman) femin- -gyn-


female (woman)
feminine (womanly)
femininity (womanhood)
gynecology (women's body study)
OB-GYN (woman's doctor)
androgyn (hermaphrodite)
androgyny (condition of being a hermaphrodite)
foot -ped- -pod-


pedal (of feet)
pedestrian (person on foot)
pedastool (foot stool)
biped (2 feet)
quadriped (4 feet)
pedantic (step by step)
pod (foot)
podiatrist (foot doctor)
tripod (3 feet)
tetrapod (4 feet)
funny bone humerus -

The humerus bone is your upper arm bone; also called "the funny bone". -
hand man- chiro-


manual (of the hand)
mano-a-mano (hand to hand)
manufacture (make by hand)
manipulate (handle (verb))
chiropractor (hand-using joint-fixing doctor)
chiromancy (palmistry)
head -cap- or -cep- -ceph- or -chepha-

cap (head; hat)
capital (head city)
capitol (head building)
decapitate (downed head make)
captain (head person)
- biceps (lit., "two heads") referring to a muscle in the arm which has two "heads" or tendons that attach to both the ulna and the radius.  It is plural in the sense that there are two heads, but in English the word is singular--referring to one muscle.
- quadriceps (lit., "four heads") referring to a muscle in the thigh, which has four "heads" or tendons.
cephalothorax {cepha (head) + thorax (chest)}  spiders have a cephalothorax with their head and chest fused together as if one body part.
heart corona- -cardio-

core (heart of something; center)
coronary (heart attack)
cardiac (of the heart)
cardiac arrest (heart stops)
cardiology (study of the heart)
myocarditis (muscle of heart inflammation)
hip pelvis ischio


pelvis ishium bone (part of the pelvis)

iliosuchus (hipped like a crocodile dinosaur)

hole / hollow cav-


sinus (curved cavity)
kidney rena- nephro-


renal failure (kidney failure) nephritis (kidney inflammation)
leg leg? podi-


leg tripod (three legs)
tetrapod (four legs)
podiatrist (foot/leg doctor)
liver hepa- hepa-


- hepatitis (liver inflammation)
lung pulmo- pneum-


pulmonary system (lung system)
cardio-pulmonary (heart & lungs)

pneumatics (machines that work with air pressure)
pneumonia (lung disease)

male (man) homo- andro-


homo sapiens (man who knows himself)
homicide (man-killing)
hominoid (man-like)
android (man-like robot)
androgen (man-maker)
androgenic (man-making)
mind ment- phren-


mental (of the mind)
sentimental (feelings of the mind)
phrenology (science of determining the mind by the bumps on the head and the shape of the head)

pyschology (science of the mind)

muscle muscul- myo-


muscular system (muscle system)

myocardititis (muscle of heart inflammation)

nerve nerv- neuro-


nervous system
neuron (nerve cell)
neural (of the nerve)
nose nas- -rhin-


nasal cavity
nasal passage
rhinoceros (nose horn)
rhinitits (nose inflammation)
red (blood) - -erythro-


- erythrocyte (red cell)
rib costa- -


intercostal muscles (in-between ribs muscles) -
skin pell- derm(a)-


- dermatologist (skin doctor)
dermatitis (skin inflammation)
subdermal (under the skin)
epidermal (on the skin)

dermis (skin)

skull crani- crani-

cranium (skull)
cranial (of the skull)
spine spina-


spinal column
vertebra (one bone in the spine)
vertebrae (multiple bones in the spine)
teeth (tooth) dent- -dont-


dentist (tooth professional)
dentition (how one's upper teeth come together with one's lower teeth)
dental (of teeth)
endodontist (inside the tooth doctor)
orthodontist (straight teeth doctor)
peridontist (around the teeth doctor)
throat larynx pharynx


otolaryngologist (ear-throat doctor) pharynx = wind pipe
tongue lingua- -glot-

lingua franca (common language)
language (tongue)
bilingual (two tongues)
multilingual (many tongues)
glottis (part of throat/mouth where the tongue resides)
polyglot (person who can speak many tongues)
white (blood) - leuko-


- leukocyte (white cell)
leukemia (white cell disease)
woman See "female" See "female"

Check out my tongue twisters pages for some truly amazing fun!
Just click on Tongue-tied Bob.

Etymology / Morphemes

Important Foreword

Many Christians nowadays "poo-poo" Halloween because of its modern-day associations with evil entities, like witches, warlocks, ghouls and goblins, and the such.  I am a Christian and I absolutely love Halloween!  Halloween actually means "Hallowed Evening".  It was a sacred day of the ancient Celtic religion.  They believed that on the last day of their year (when the season changed from warm to cold), which happens to occur on October 31st and/or November 1st by our Gregorian calendar, that the Hel (Loki's daughter) opened the gates of the so-called "Underworld" and let all the spirits out to roam the Earth for one night.  This was both good and bad.  The good part is that the spirits could visit their loved ones, but the bad part was that if a spirit had a vendetta against some of the living, they might haunt them.  Hence, the tradition of making scary jack-o-lanterns to scare away possible evil spirits.  Therefore, the jack-o-lantern is no different than say, using a crystal to attract and keep positive energy, or putting salt on the window seals to ward off evil spirits.  Halloween is a good thing.  Blame Hollywood for turning it into something that it is NOT!  P.S., I think it is important that we understand the true meaning of words by looking that their origins (etymology) and exploring the morphemes of each word.  That's why I present to you:  "Halloween Etymology and Morphemes."  Please enjoy.

The word "Halloween" is composed of two morphemes:
Hallow (Holy) + Een (Evening)

This first section is:
Living People*
Associated with Modern-day Halloween
English word Original Language
Morpheme &
diviner Latin

Morpheme: divine (of God)
Meaning:  A "diviner" is one who practices "divination" which is basically trying to access answers from God through various means.
See "~mancer" for some of the types of divination.


Divination is only of the "devil" if you don't pray and ask God Almighty to send guardian angels to take charge.  If you fail to pray, then evil spirits will take charge of the situation.

Just like with everything, divination is merely a tool.  It can be used in good ways and bad ways.  I implore you to use it for good (if you use it at all), by always praying to God Almighty to send his angels to take charge of the divination process.  CAUTION:  Do not deal with any entity except the Almighty!!!!  Always pray to the Almighty before attempting any form of divination or you may inadvertently invite in something that you really don't want hanging around.

If, by chance, you have already invited some unwanted entity into your dwelling, please see my exorcism page.  It is a DIY for getting rid of such entities.

English word Original Language
Morpheme &

The Witch of Endor
is in the Bible.
She was a necromancer.




Morpheme:  ~mancy (divination)
{related to 'maniac' (crazy person)}
Morpheme:  ~er (person)
Morpheme:  ~mancer (mad diviner)

Aleuromancer (diviner through fortune cookies).
Astragalomancy (diviner through throwing sheep bones).
Capnomancy (diviner through interpreting shapes in the smoke).
Carromancy (diviner through using cards; like Tarot cards).
Chiromancer (diviner of palm readings).
Crystallomaner (diviner though crystal ball).
Daphnomancer (diviner though laural leaves).
Geomancer (diviner through rocks, soil, and/or sand).
Hydromancer (diviner using water).
Lithomancer (diviner using gemstones).
Lychnomancer (diviner using 3 lit candles).
Necromancer (diviner who talks to the dead).
Psychomancer (diviner using psychic powers).
Pyromancer (diviner though fire).
Stichomancer (diviner using books).
Tasseomancer (diviner through tea leaves)

Full List of Mancers (and my source)


The 3 magi.

Latin (& Greek) Morpheme:  magus (>Latin) meaning magician.

Morpheme::  magos (>Greek) meaning magician.

Plural of magus is magi.

Notice the Bible contains a story of the 3 magi who divined the exact time and place of the birth of Jesus.  See?!!!!!   I was right.  Divination can be used for good purposes!

skin-walker (Translation from the Navajo language) For more information about skinwalkers, see werebeasts (below).
sorcerer Latin Morpheme:  sors / sorce  meaning fortune.

While in modern times (and probably due to Hollywood) the sorcerer is thought to have more magical powers, anciently the sorcerer was merely a fortune-teller--a fortune-teller that may have used various forms of divination.

Sorcerers could be male or female.  The female is called a sorceress.

witches, and

Old English WARLOCK
Morphemes:  War (oath) + lock (liar)
[oath-breaker]  Loki (Deceiver)
Morpheme:  Wicca (female magician; sorceress)
Morpheme:  Wiz (wise) + ard (art)

Witches are female.
Warlocks are male.
Wizards were typically male in the past.

While there are good witches and bad witches, there are only bad warlocks.  They broke oaths, and aligned themselves with devils.
Wizards were very scholarly in the arts of occult magic.

Learn more on my Halloween page.

Old English Morpheme:  were (man)
Types of werecreatures:
- werewolf
- werecoyote
- weredog
- wererat
- werebear
- werebat
- skinwalker

Werebeasts or werecreatures are basically shapeshifters.

Some can only change into one beast; others can change into multiple beasts.

Learn more on my Halloween page.

According to a Navajo man that I met, skinwalkers are werebeasts.  They can shapeshift at will.  They have made a pact with an evil entity (a devil) in order to have this power.  Perhaps they sold their souls.  It is such an ignominious thing that Navajos are forbidden to talk about it, but some do.
zombie West African
Morpheme:  zombie (ghost)

Source:  Merriam-Websters

More INFO on zombies:

Allegedly, a zombie is a real thing...

BUT, not like Hollywood portrays it.

Hollywood changes things (have you noticed?)

A zombie is "born" when the human dies, and an evil spirit immediately inhabits the body of the deceased.  Most likely the zombie state doesn't last long, because evil spirits cannot inhabit human bodies for long periods of time.  Plus, inhabiting a dead body cannot possibly be a pleasant experience for the evil spirit.  That's probably why you don't see zombies very often.

This section is:
*Non-living Beings*
Associated with Modern-day Halloween
English word Original Language
Morpheme &
bogeyman Old English Morpheme:  bogey (frightening ghost specter)

History:  The idea of the bogeyman was used by adults to frighten children into not wandering off (for their own safety).  Compare water babies below.

demon Greek Morpheme:  demon (lesser god)

Which is exactly was a demon is...  a lesser god.  But, in the modern vernacular it particular refers to the evil lesser gods.

devil Old English devil (evil spirit);  Note:  there are a lot of devils (not just one devil).
diva Latin


Latin:  diva (goddess)

Persian:  daevas (devils)

genie (jinn) Arabic genie (a lower level spirit).

Please note that genies can be good or bad.

goblin Latin & French The name of an evil spirit that haunted a whole town; i.e., the French town of Evreux.



Note:  I have a page dedicated just to ghost.  It has photos of actual ghosts!

Click on the ghost above to go there.



Old English

Ghost = a good or bad spirit.

Some types of ghosts are:
Apparition (Latin)  "Appearance" a ghost that can be seen.
Orbs (Latin)  "Spheres"; this is the natural appearance of all ghosts; shiny, little spheres that float in the air.
Phantom (Greek) "Ghost";  a ghost that can be heard, but not seen.
Poltergeist (German) = Polter (noisy) + Geist (Ghost);  a ghost that makes a lot of noise by rattling, knocking, and moving things.
Shadow Person (Modern English);  a ghost that is black;  these are all evil ghosts.
- Soul (Old English):  the spiritual part of a person; the part that has existed and will always exist, even when the body dies.
- Specter (Latin) "Seen";  same as apparition.
- Spirit (Latin):  Breath; as in: the breath of life (from God).  All spirits (or souls) were created by God, but they have free-will to become good, or to become evil.
- My Ghost page.

ghoul Arabic An evil spirit that robs graves and feeds upon the flesh of the dead.






In Greek mythology satyrs were demigods.  In the Bible, the Hebrew word that was translated as satyr referred to a goatman that was an evil spirit that inhabited deserts.  Click on the satyr below to learn more.

Fantastic Beasts of the Bible
And, where to find them.

slender man


Modern English

This refers to the popular internet meme of a tall, slender, dark figure of a man; which some people have claimed to have seen.

It never hurt anybody.  I think it is just a ghost.  Ghosts cannot hurt you, because they are not physical.

water babies From Utah Indian Lore Water Babies are mermaid-like creatures that inhabit the natural lakes of Utah (and surrounding states) which cry like a baby at night to lure children in towards the lake, where they are then captured, drug down under water, drowned and eaten.

Learn more on my Utah Lore Page.

This section is:
*Living Non-human Beings*
Associated with Modern-day Halloween
English word Original Language
Morpheme &
Latin Morpheme:  alien (stranger; foreigner)

Today it refers to both a foreigner, and an extra-terrestrial being


Romanian Morpheme:  dracul (dragon)

Dracula was a real person, who was a member of the "Order of the Dragon".  While he was not a vampire, he was blood-thirsty.  And, this is why he was associated with vampires.

If Dracula did become a vampire, he is now a living-non-human being.

Modern English The first sighting of mothman was in 1966 in West Virginia.  In all of the sightings of mothman, no one was hurt.  That's why I don't like the movie "Mothman" which goes around killing people.

According to remote-viewer John Vavanco, mothman is a time-traveler trying to fix the timeline.

"The Rake"
Modern English The rake is a white, gangly, gossamer being which has been photographed and filmed in the woods or abandoned buildings in the woods.  See Urban Dictionary.
Modern English Reptilians are not aliens, because they have been on this planet longer than humans (and may have evolved from dinosaurs).  They tend to live in caverns deep underground.  They are harmless, because they avoid humans like the plague.  But, if you wander into their territory, they might abduct you and conduct experiments on you.
Undead Middle English While the term Vampire didn't appear until the 1700's, there were accounts of the "Undead" in England since 1196.  They were said to be undead, blood-thirsty, plague-spreading night-walkers.
German & Hungarian Vampires are NOT traditionally part of Halloween, but since they are typically evil, they have been incorporated into the tradition.

Vampires were first recorded in Hungary in 1732 and the word originally comes from the Hungarian language.  Then, it moved to Bulgaria, which is now part of Germany.

By the late 1700's, the "Undead" of England were associated with the Vampires of Hungary.

This section is:
*Other Things*
Associated with Modern-day Halloween
English word Original Language
Morpheme &

(Loki's daughter)

Old Norse



Learn more about Norse mythology on Leon's Scandinavian Lore page.

Morpheme:  Hel (literally "cave")

...meaning an underground cave where the souls (both the good souls and the bad souls) of the dead reside.  Interestingly, the place called "Hell" (named after Loki's daughter) is divided into two parts:  The good souls reside in an upper level, while the bad souls reside in the lower level which dips into Niflheim, which is ruled by a dragon named Nidhog (which means "dreaded bitter").  Nidhog and his minions (all serpents) torment the spirits of the bad dead.

Learn more about Hel (Loki's daughter) on my Scandinavian Lore Page.

She is the main character of Halloween!


jack-o-lantern Middle English
(the term goes back to the 1660s)
Jack-o-Lantern = Jack of the Lantern = the night watchman.

History of the jack-o-lantern

While the term "jack-o-lantern" only goes back to the 1660s, the tradition of making jack-o-lanterns goes back thousands of a years (way back to before Jesus Christ was even born).

Let's go way back to B.C. (Before Christ) in Ireland.

There was a holiday (literally a holy day) called Samhain (pronounced Sum-wain) which literally means:  Summer Wanes.  It was celebrated October 31-November 1 (by our Gregorian Calendar) but was the last day of the Celtic Year.

As I mentioned above, it was believed that Hel (Loki's daughter) would open the gates of the Underworld one night each year (the last night of the year) and allow the souls of the dead to roam the Earth.

While this was mostly a benign thing, some people worried that perhaps some of the souls of the dead weren't so nice, and perhaps some were down-right evil.  Therefore, people would carve turnips (as the one pictured above) with scary faces and hang them in front of the doors of their dwellings in order to scare away any evil spirits.

Fast-forward to the 1600's when whole towns would employ a man to go around at night with a lantern and keep watch for the town (especially on Halloween night).  He was called "Jack of the Lantern" (or Jack-o-lantern).  [Note:  the History Channel's portrayal of jack is a nefarious twist of the tradition, turning jack-o-lantern into a bad guy.  I don't believe it.  But, you believe want you want to.  My source says that jack-o-lantern was a night watchman.]

It wasn't until 1834 in America, that pumpkins were used to make jack-o-lanterns.  The pumpkin was introduced to the colonists by the native, indigenous tribes, and the colonists thought, "Wow!  This would make a wonderful lantern!"

And ever since then, Americans have been making their jack-o-lanterns out of pumpkins (which are a lot easier to carve than a turnip; and a lot more fun as well).  The sad thing is that while the tradition has persisted, most people have no idea how the tradition even started.

It is my intention to bring light (pun intended) to this wonderful tradition.

And, I hope it never fades.

See my Halloween Page for more details on the History of Halloween.

and, lastly...

Morpheme:  masca (Latin)
Morpheme:  mascara (Arabic)

Both were coverings for the face.  The masca was an artificial face, while mascara was a blackening of the face with paint.

It is thought that maybe the Latin word came from the Arabic word, but that is just conjecture.

Masks and Halloween

 Picture is from clipartlibrary.com

The tradition of wearing scary masks at Halloween time stemmed from ancient Samhain  traditions of wearing a scary mask if one had to leave one's home on Halloween night.

This was done so that none of the evil spirits would bother them.

Let me reiterate that.  Scary masks were worn to scare away evil spirits; not to scare people.



Christmas Morphemes

English Word Original Language
Morpheme and
Christmas Greek
& Latin

Christ [ > Greek] = anointed with oil
Mass [ > Latin] = a sacramental service

Christmas Carol
? Carol (as a song) has uncertain origins.  Possibly from Greek "chorus" (a round dance).

Carol (as in A Christmas Carol; by Charles Dickens) is of Germanic origin meaning: "man" or "husband".  It is related to the names Carl and Charles.


German Elf = [ > German]  a small mischievous humanoid creature.

See my page on "The Little People".

Santa Claus got elves to help him make and distribute toys to all the good little boys and girls.  Santa Claus was born in Finland, but eventually he and his elves moved to the North Pole.



Gift = Old Norse
Gold = Old English
Frankincense = Old German
Myrrh = Old Arabic
Gift [ > Old Norse] meaning something given (for good luck).

Gold [ > Old English; German] bright, shiny metal

Frankincense = Frank + Incense
Frank [ > German] (free from impurities); named after the Frank tribe which was a Germanic tribe of free men.
Incense [ > Latin]  (that which is burned for its sweet smell);
Frankincense came from the East, probably through the Franks, from whom it got its name.

Myrrh = [ > Arabic] a bitter herb; used as incense

Boughs of Holly

Old English Bough = [ > Old English] branch

Holly = [ > Old English] the tree with the prickly green leaves

Holly was originally chosen as the plant of the winter solstice because it is an evergreen.  Later, it became associated with Christmas (as all the winter solstice traditions were incorporated into Christmas).

Light Old German Light [ > Old Germanic "leuk"] brightness

Greek Magus (singular) means magician / astrologer

Magi (plural of magus)

In the Bible, these weren't ordinary magicians; they were very learned men, familiar with the astronomical alignments and signs in the stars of heaven.


& Latin
Manger [ > French ] a box in a stable from which the animals eat.[ > Latin] manducare: to eat, from which we get the word "mandible".

The baby Jesus was laid in a manger, in a stable, because there was no room in the inn.


Old German Mistle = [ > Old Germanic] Mist

Toe = [ > Old Germanic] Twig

Nativity Scene Latin Native = [ > Latin] born,
... from which we get the following words:

native (one who was born there)
natal (of birth)
neonate (newborn)
nativity (birth)
nature (thing that gives birth to all things)
natural (of nature)
innate (from birth)

North Pole Old English North is a pure English word, probably from Germanic roots (nurtha).

Pole is also a pure English word, with Scandinavian roots (pall), which means "stake".

Ornament French
& Latin
Ornate = [ > French > Latin] decorative,

Ornament = decoration, adornment

Present French
& Latin
Present (noun) = [ > French > Latin] something offered.  It comes from the verb "to present", which means to offer.

(It doesn't mean what you think it means).

Old German
& Old English
Rein (I always thought that rein meant rein; but apparently I was wrong; it comes from the Old German word Renn, which means to run.

Deer is a pure English word that originally meant any quadrupedal animal.

So, reindeer originally meant "running animal" which they peoples of the north used for transportation.

Reindeer are highly adapted to live in very cold climates.  In fact, they don't do well in warmer climates.  The picture to the left is my son riding a reindeer in Mongolia.

Santa Claus
Latin &
Santa = [ > Latin] saint

Claus = [ > German] Nicolaus

Santa Claus = St. Nicolaus.

Dutch Sleigh = [ > Dutch "slee"] a vehicle on runners pulled by animals (such as reindeer in the northern north and horses in the southern north).
Star Old English Star is a pure English word with cognates in all Scandinavian and Germanic languages.
Tinsel Anglo-French Tinsel is an old Anglo-French word meaning a cloth made with interwoven gold and/or silver thread.
Old English Tree is a pure English word with cognates in all Scandinavian and Germanic languages.
Wassailing Old Norse Wassail = Was + Hail
Was (be) + Hail (healthy)

Wassailing was the signing of songs at winter time, accompanied by the drinking of ale/mead and later hard apple cider.

The term "wassail" was used as a "toast" when drinking.

Later it turned into Christmas caroling. 

Winter Solstice

Learn all about Winter Solstice Traditions Around the World, on Leon's Planet.

Old English
& Latin
Winter is a pure English word with cognates in all Scandinavian and Germanic languages.

Solstice [ > Latin] = Sol + stice
Sol (sun) + stice (stands still)

From Fall Equinox (Sept. 22) until Winter Solstice (Dec. 22) the sun retreats lower and lower in the sky (from a Northern-hemisphere perspective).  Dec. 22 was called the "Death of the Sun", and the sun remained "still" for 3 days ("in the grave"), until it was born a again on December 25th (and it started rising again in the sky).

X-mas Greek
& Latin
X [Greek] = Xpist (Christ in Greek)

Mas = mass [Latin] a sacramental service

Yule log

Old Norse Yule [ > Norse] = feasting
Tide = season

The Yuletide was a 2-month season (from December to January) involving much feasting and drinking.

The tradition of the yule log was that on December 22, one must keep a log (or perhaps logs) burning until December 25 in order to re-ignite the sun.

Learn more about Yuletide traditions on Leon's Planet.






This material IS copyrighted and yet, I give permission to copy and print, but I would appreciate being given credit for compiling the list as it did take a lot of time and effort.  I would also appreciate a link back to this page.

Also, please feel free to contact me for questions, comments, or requests.


THIS PAGE has the English meanings in alphabetical order.

THE OTHER PAGE has the morphemes themselves in alphabetical order.








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